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 Sarah Elsie Bake, Rosalind Edwards - How many qualitative interviews is enough?
2018.04.19 08:22 AntonioMachado Sarah Elsie Bake, Rosalind Edwards - How many qualitative interviews is enough?
Harry Wolcott (pág. 3): pesquisa qualitativa não visa estabelecer frequências estatísticas mas amplitudes de resposta (the range of responses); mais importante do que o número de entrevistas em si, é a transparência no ato de reportar a forma como as entrevistas foram escolhidas e analisadas.
Adler e Adler (8-10): Estratégias de pesquisa: enquanto que a pesquisa quantitativa procura recolher uma bateria de dados superficiais de um grande número de pessoas, com o intuito de usar as correlações detetadas para compreender, prever e influenciar comportamentos, a pesquisa qualitativa geralmente estuda menos pessoas mas debruça-se de forma mais aprofundada sobre esses indivíduos, subculturas, cenas, contextos (settings), procurando compreender como, e por que razões, as pessoas percebem, interpretam, reflectem, interagem ou representam papeis.
Les Black (12-14): conceito de sociedade de entrevista; we should see the interview as a place where social forms are staged rather than a resource to understand the nature of society beyond; Sociological craft is not just a matter of technique or extracting the right quantum of data. We need always to think about what we are trying to produce through our ideas, theoretical fascinations and sociological sociability. Interview data provides our basic raw material but how much we need depends on what we want to make with it. Also, our addiction to interviews has limited our attentiveness to the world; Perhaps as researchers today we need to lessen our dependence on the interview itself; I think this has made social researchers less well equipped to achieve vivid descriptions in their writing. We have an opportunity today to think about how to develop new ways of training our sociological attention, our understanding of qualitative data beyond text to include image, sound and sensuous life that will also enhance our representations of the social world.
Howard Becker (15): Em última análise, o número de entrevistas é sempre arbitrário, variando em função do conhecimento que vamos adquirindo e da revisão das nossas ideias, e é sempre mais um resultado de considerações práticas (tempo, dinheiro, etc...) do que de considerações procedimentais analíticas ou lógicas.
Julia Brannen (16): it was not sample size per se that mattered nor even that the distribution of numbers of persons within a group that was so was critical but rather the inclusion of a particular case. In such an event the case might one that was difficult to locate or a person or organisation from whom it was difficult to secure agreement. Such a case can turn out, often for theoretical reasons, to be central to the analysis; Cases are not only selected for the purposes of interview but also, most importantly, for the purposes of comparison in the analysis. We must find the ‘right persons’ to study in terms of our ‘theory’. We must select cases which are not only relevant to specific research questions but should seek out those cases that are likely to prove our assumptions wrong in the analysis.
Alan Bryman (18-19) enuncia cinco factores que influenciam o número de entrevistas; the most crucial thing is to be prepared to justify your sample size and in this briefing I’ve tried to suggest some reflections in this regard. The five factors that I have mentioned can be used to springboards for thinking about and justifying sample size.
First, there is the issue of saturation [...] described as a process in which the researcher continues to sample relevant cases until no new theoretical insights are being gleaned from the data. Once saturation is achieved, the researcher would move on to a research question arising from the data collected and then sampling theoretically in relation to that question [...] Such an approach to sampling is very demanding because it forces the researcher to combine sampling, data collection, and data analysis, rather than treating them as separate stages in a linear process. [...] Further, there have been few guidelines on how to establish whether one has in fact achieved saturation
A second factor is that it is sometimes suggested that there are minimum requirements for sample size in qualitative studies. [...] Contrasting these figures (20-30 versus 60-150) strongly suggests that there is quite a lot of variety in what is believed to be the minimum requirement, so that it is unsurprising to find that actual sample sizes vary considerable in qualitative research. [...] Thus, on the one hand, researchers need to be aware that there is a view that there are expectations about minimum sample size in order to be able to publish one’s results; on the other hand, there is very little agreement about what that minimum sample size is! What is almost certainly crucial is that the researcher must be prepared to justify the sample size with which he or she has ended up.
sample sizes will be significantly influenced by a third influence on sample size – the style or theoretical underpinnings of the study. (por exemplo, pesquisas de âmbito fenomenológico ou etnometodológico requerem, à partida, de menos entrevistas, dada a profundidade e detalhe da análise)
A fourth factor that is likely to influence sample size is the heterogeneity of the populationfrom which the sample is drawn (quanto mais homogéneos os grupos, menor o número de entrevistas necessário).
Fifth and finally, the breadth and scope of research questions vary quite a lot in qualitative research and this too is likely to influence sample size [...] However, breadth and scope are not entirely objective attributes of a research focus, so there is likely to be some disagreement about appropriate sample sizes along this dimension
Kathy Charmaz (21-22): Forming any answer to the question is more complex than it seems and raises a series of related questions. [...] Fundamental questions about epistemology must be addressed. [...] A paradox arises: you may not know what you need to find out until you grapple with analyzing your data. Most qualitative interview research is an emergent process of learning about and interpreting research participants’ views of their experience. Important foci often remain implicit. Planning solid interview studies entails allowing for following emergent ideas and directions. [...] Grounded theory is efficient but that does not mean a handful of interviews produces a respectable study. Conversely, having a substantial amount of data does not guarantee an original contribution. [...] Often the question of how many interviews assumes that conducting single interviews is the only method of gathering data. Is it? Not always. Sometimes researchers do not give themselves credit for observational, archival, and documentary research that they have done. Mixed qualitative methods can strengthen a study with a small number of interviews [...] If you conduct a study that relies only on interviews, the following guidelines may help. Increase your number of interviews when you: 1) pursue a controversial topic, 2) anticipate or discover surprising or provocative findings, 3) construct complex conceptual analyses, and 4) seek professional credibility.
Norman Denzin (23), seguindo Psathas: the "method of instances." This method takes each instance of a phenomenon, for example an interview, as an occurrence which evidences the operation of a set of cultural understandings currently available for use by cultural members. How many interviews are enough? ONE [...] The analyst examines those moments when an utterance intersects with another utterance, giving rise to an instance of the system in action [...] The analyst's task is to understand how this instance and its intersections works, to show what rules of interpretation are operating, to map and illuminate the structure of the interpretive event itself. [...] In the arena of an interview meaning is given in the responses one speaker-writer makes to another [...] Interpretation moves through two stages. In stage one the analyst examines how these meaningful utterances are directly and indirectly connected to one another as interactional accomplishments within a particular interpretive frame. Here the focus is on the form, not the content of the event, for example the use of turn-taking, compliments and responses, greeting exchanges, closings, and so on. In stage two, the content of the event, as it operates within the interpretive frame is examined, for example a request for help within the frame of a face-to-face interview. There is an attempt to show how these occurrences in this context articulate matters of power, biography, self, gender, race, class and ethnicity. [...] collections of instances "cannot be assembled in advance of an analysis of at least one, because it cannot be known in advance what features delineate each case as a 'next one like the last'". Thus large samples are of little use until the analyst has exhausted the method of instances. This means there is little concern for empirical generalization. Psathas is clear on this point. The goal is not an abstract, or empirical generalization, rather the aim is "concerned with providing analyses that meet the criteria of unique adequacy"
Andrea Doucet (25-26): I have answered the ‘how many?’ question in different ways over time; I have done this because I have arrived at different conclusions over time, and at different times, about my knowledge construction processes, and resulting knowledge(s), that would meet the requirements of the particular epistemic communities who judge and evaluate my research. I also had to balance such decisions with time and available resources, appropriate project design, the level of diversity needed within my research sample, and estimated “outputs” aimed at diverse audiences [...] different settings might produce different stories. I thus took a multi-layered approach to the ‘how many?’ question, thinking also of ‘what type’ and ‘what sample’ were best. [...] a “reasonable” answer depends on many factors. These include your institutional and disciplinary location, your career stage (and associated resources), and the epistemic communities who will evaluate your overall methodological approach in relation to your overall research problematic
Uwe Flick (27): research designing comprises more than sampling and methods. It has to do with research planning, on the level of available resources and with respect to overall ambitions with the research. So the answer can only be: Reflect what you intend to find out and show with your interviews, put it in the context of which resources you have available for doing your research and how your interviews are embedded in the fuller outline of your study
Jennifer Mason (29-30): Sometimes, any number of interviews won’t be ‘enough’, because you will need other kinds of methods to ‘get at’ whatever it is you are researching [...] Obviously, the content of the interviews, the quality of the data they yield, and your skill and inventiveness in analysing them, are all vital to the decision about how many you need. You could do 500 interviews that were all too superficial to yield much of use. You could tease out incisive flashes of insight from only a few. [...] Ideographic or nomethetic approaches point in very different directions in terms of how many interviews, as well as whom to interview, in what level of depth, how to analyse the interviews. [...] Qualitative research (interview based and otherwise) and analysis are very time consuming, and given the high premium placed on the quality of interpretation and the importance of researcher inventiveness, it is vital to factor in enough time to make the best use of the data generated.Usually, it is better to have a smaller number of interviews, creatively and interpretively analysed, than a larger number where the researcher runs out of time to do them justice analytically. It is better to aim to offer sound qualitative insights, than try to mimic a quantitative ‘representative’ logic.
Daniel Miller (31): Mostly what people say is the legitimation of what they do, not the explanation or the description. So my ideal number might be 0. The primary method of ethnography is participant observation. It is better to be immersed in people’s everyday life and also listen in to the conversations they have with the people they live with, rather than carrying out the artificial procedure that we call an interview. [...] We should be careful about language as evidence but I am not suggesting that we ignore it entirely [...] Given the constraints of time and money I also carry out projects based in some measure on interviews. [...] But after a while certain patterns and repetitions arise, that give me the sense that I can make claims about what people have said. So the quantitative criteria in practice is not an absolute number, but refers to that point at which you sense you have encountered the amount of repetition that gives you the confidence to write and make analytical generalisations. [...] Because at the least repetition demonstrates the existence of a given discourse about that topic. [...] I try and encourage these students not to just use interviews [...] if pushed to give a minimum number for formal interviews I may say six to ten for more general discussions [...] however many interviews, and whatever the topic, don’t ever just rely on the interview or on language, and don’t believe that an interview tells you what people actually do.
Luisa Passerini (32-33): There is no one number that can define successful qualitative interviews. There are wonderful works based on a long interview with on one person, which have become classics in the field of cultural biography. [...] the interview was created by the encounter between two or more persons, and the effects of their intersubjectivity should be pointed out. Certain questions were asked, and not other ones; certain replies were given, and on other points there was silence. [...] I don’t believe that one can situate oneself in a no man’s land, in a literally inter-disciplinary space. The space one occupies is really trans-disciplinary, in the sense of transposing elements from one or more disciplines to the other. The advantage of this approach is that it allows us to challenge the epistemological status of the discipline we inhabit [...] one can never make hehis group of interviewees representative in the sense of quantitative sociology [...] we should not make a general assertion and then bring an excerpt from an interview as a confirmatory example; rather, we should try as hard as we can to make clear the comparison between the universe of interviews we have constructed and the socio-historical context to which it refers [...] This means also keeping the two voices, ours and the interviewee’s, evident in the text we produce [...] the researcher can discern recurrent themes, which construct a collective text that can be studied and located in its historical context. Sometimes, what is recurrent is a mistake, of either date or information, and this mistake must be explained in its functionality to the narration. Or it may be a silence, and interpretative hypotheses must be proposed about silences as well. [...] I suggest to have oneself interviewed, in order to reflect on both the experience of being transformed into a witness and the discrepancy between history and narration
Charles C. Ragin (34): “What kind of whole has a part like this?” [...] The key issues for the qualitative researcher are (1) the degree of researcher confidence in the commonalities identified (i.e., the subset relations) and (2) the triangulation of a given pattern with what else is known about the category or outcome and also with what else is known about the larger case or whole.
Paul Have (35): investigador qualitativo deve ter a noção que entrevistas podem não ser a melhor forma de recolher dados; situação de entrevista é sempre artificial e as respostas obtidas são sempre um produto da própria interacção entre entrevistador e entrevistado; if you take the answers as somehow a ‘picture of the interviewee’s mind’, his or her attitudes, opinions, plans, fears, whatever, you ignore the effects of the interactive process; usar apenas entrevistas é problemático e devem ser utilizados também outros métodos como observação direta ou análise documental; entrevistador deve estar atento aos pressupostos implícitos nas suas perguntas; reportar as suas decisões e escolhas, incluindo o que optou por não fazer.
Ben Baumberg (37): Most qualitative researchers aim to keep getting data until they have saturation, which I take to mean sufficient depthon the full range of the phenomenon they’re interested in [...] The trouble is that before starting your research, you know neither how many interviews you need to get ‘sufficient depth’, nor what the scope of the ‘full range’ of variation is. Various scrutiny panels will still require you to make a guess; my estimate of 35-40 interviews was based on limits of time/resources than anything more substantive. [...] [despite] far fewer than I realistically thought would be necessary for saturation – yet I still feel confident that I captured sufficient depth to enable me to generalise to a theory of working conditions and health. Perhaps the lesson is: in the battle of the desirable and the possible, the possible always wins. But luckily the possible sometimes turns out to be more desirable than you thought.
Mark Doidge (38): Wisdom comes after the event
Tracey Jenson (39): When I think about how many interviews I conducted for my doctoral research – or rather, how few – I always feel an urge to qualify it somehow. For example: I used other methods alongside interviews; many of those interviews were group interviews; some of the scheduled ones didn’t work out. Even now, I worry that I did not do enough interviews and I dread being asked the ‘how many’ question. [...] I realised that I had internalised all the implicit messages about numbers and value that circulate throughout research, how we talk about research and how others talk about our research – that ‘more’ always means ‘better’, ‘more valid’ and ‘more robust’. [...] When I think about the pieces of research that have inspired me, very few involve massive datasets. The interviews contained within are valuable because they are written up with dignity and care for the respondents; and because the researcher has taken their time. [...] I still don’t think that there is a magic number to aim for when conducting qualitative interviews. I also think that it is perfectly normal to feel that you never have ‘enough’ interviews to make the research claims you want to make. Rather than asking the question ‘how many qualitative interviews should I do’, my advice would be to ask instead: why do I feel like these are not enough?
Lisa Sandino (40): uma só entrevista pode ser suficiente, tudo depende do objetivo de pesquisa; cada entrevista gera sempre a possibilidade de realizar outras; em última análise, toda e qualquer entrevista é contingente e parcial, mesmo as mais estruturadas; entrevistas permitem explorar simultaneamente identidades narrativas individuais, coletivas e institucionais; Poised at the intersection of auto/biography and history, each interview represents its own worldview that, nevertheless, contributes to the panorama of cultural institutions [...] and [...] history.
Bindi Shah (41): número de entrevistas é condicionado por questões pragmáticas como financiamento, tempo, ou tipo informação pretendida; no caso de pesquisas de caráter mais exploratório e/ou quando existe pouca pesquisa prévia, é útil combinar observação direta e análise documental com entrevistas em profundidade semi-estruturadas, sobretudo quando se procura iluminar os conceitos e significados dos próprios indivíduos sobre as suas identidades, práticas e crenças, e em diferentes escalas (macro e micro); apesar de não ser estatisticamente representativa, amostragem deve procurar ser teoricamente representativa.
Conclusão: the recurring answer to the question ‘how many’ is ‘it depends’. The usefulness of this resource for students, lecturers and researchers rests on the guidance offered by our contributors as to what it depends upon. These include epistemological and methodological questions about the nature and purpose of the research: whether the focus of the objectives and of analysis is on commonality or difference or uniqueness or complexity or comparison or instances; practical issues to take into account include the level of degree, the time available, institutional committee requirements; and both philosophically and pragmatically, the judgment of the epistemic community in which a student or researcher wishes to be or is located, is another key consideration.
Since the latest update of 1.7 AND nVidia drivers, I've had issues of the game freezing and even crashing on different occasions: when launching from the Uplay client, sometimes from loading the game after character selection, and other times during gameplay. What I've done: Reinstalled Uplay Verified game files Reinstalled game and DX I don't run any streaming software nor use any gaming software for mouse or keyboard My computer relevant info is:
Time of this report: 8/18/2017, 22:07:16 Machine name: XXXXX Machine Id: XXXXXXXXXXXXX Operating System: Windows 10 Pro N 64-bit (10.0, Build 15063) (15063.rs2_release.170317-1834) Language: Portuguese (Regional Setting: Portuguese) System Manufacturer: ASUS System Model: All Series BIOS: BIOS Date: 10/28/15 15:37:50 Ver: 30.03 Processor: Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-4460 CPU @ 3.20GHz (4 CPUs), ~3.2GHz Memory: 16384MB RAM Available OS Memory: 16328MB RAM Page File: 6034MB used, 12724MB available Windows Dir: C:\WINDOWS DirectX Version: DirectX 12 DX Setup Parameters: Not found User DPI Setting: Using System DPI System DPI Setting: 96 DPI (100 percent) DWM DPI Scaling: Disabled Miracast: Available, with HDCP Microsoft Graphics Hybrid: Not Supported DxDiag Version: 10.00.15063.0000 64bit Unicode
Card name: NVIDIA GeForce GTX 980 Manufacturer: NVIDIA Chip type: GeForce GTX 980 DAC type: Integrated RAMDAC Device Type: Full Device (...) Display Memory: 12224 MB Dedicated Memory: 4060 MB Shared Memory: 8163 MB Current Mode: 1920 x 1080 (32 bit) (60Hz) Monitor Name: Generic PnP Monitor Monitor Model: VX238 Monitor Id: ACI23C1 Native Mode: 1920 x 1080(p) (60.000Hz) Output Type: HDMI Driver Name: C:\WINDOWS\System32\DriverStore\FileRepository\nv_dispi.inf_amd64_9ab613610b40aa98\nvldumdx.dll,C:\WINDOWS\System32\DriverStore\FileRepository\nv_dispi.inf_amd64_9ab613610b40aa98\nvldumdx.dll,C:\WINDOWS\System32\DriverStore\FileRepository\nv_dispi.inf_amd64_9ab613610b40aa98\nvldumdx.dll,C:\WINDOWS\System32\DriverStore\FileRepository\nv_dispi.inf_amd64_9ab613610b40aa98\nvldumdx.dll Driver File Version: 22.21.0013.8528 (English) Driver Version: 184.108.40.20628 (...) Driver Attributes: Final Retail Driver Date/Size: 09/08/2017 01:00:00, 893272 bytes I have searched the windows logs and DxDiag for windows events and found these were created on game crash: Windows Error Reporting: +++ WER0 +++: Registo de falhas , tipo 0 Nome do Evento: LiveKernelEvent Resposta: Não disponível ID do CAB: 0 Assinatura do problema: P1: 141 P2: ffffe70f4fda4140 P3: fffff80898cccfec P4: 0 P5: c4c P6: 10_0_15063 P7: 0_0 P8: 256_1 P9: P10: Ficheiros anexados: \?\C:\WINDOWS\LiveKernelReports\WATCHDOG\WATCHDOG-20170818-2157.dmp \?\C:\Windows\Temp\WER-7766625-0.sysdata.xml \?\C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\WER\Temp\WER8A6F.tmp.WERInternalMetadata.xml \?\C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\WER\Temp\WER8A6F.tmp.csv \?\C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\WER\Temp\WER8A80.tmp.txt Estes ficheiros podem estar disponíveis aqui: C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\WER\ReportArchive\Kernel_141_703f464b4cf4be7a382b9cc97e8839d01dcf1f72_00000000_cab_17968bc7 Símbolo de análise: A procurar novamente solução: 0 ID do Relatório: 0f610789-c18a-485c-8be3-4fcff4d228ac Estado do Relatório: 2049 Registo com hash: +++ WER1 +++: Registo de falhas , tipo 0 Nome do Evento: LiveKernelEvent Resposta: Não disponível ID do CAB: 0 Assinatura do problema: P1: 141 P2: ffffe70f4fda4140 P3: fffff80898cccfec P4: 0 P5: c4c P6: 10_0_15063 P7: 0_0 P8: 256_1 P9: P10: Ficheiros anexados: \?\C:\WINDOWS\LiveKernelReports\WATCHDOG\WATCHDOG-20170818-2157.dmp \?\C:\Windows\Temp\WER-7766625-0.sysdata.xml \?\C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\WER\Temp\WER8A6F.tmp.WERInternalMetadata.xml \?\C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\WER\Temp\WER8A6F.tmp.csv \?\C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\WER\Temp\WER8A80.tmp.txt Estes ficheiros podem estar disponíveis aqui: C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\WER\ReportQueue\Kernel_141_703f464b4cf4be7a382b9cc97e8839d01dcf1f72_00000000_17a28a7f Símbolo de análise: A procurar novamente solução: 0 ID do Relatório: 0f610789-c18a-485c-8be3-4fcff4d228ac Estado do Relatório: 4 Registo com hash: +++ WER2 +++: Registo de falhas , tipo 0 Nome do Evento: LiveKernelEvent Resposta: Não disponível ID do CAB: 0 Assinatura do problema: P1: 141 P2: ffffe70f4d1e04a0 P3: fffff80898cccfec P4: 0 P5: 2748 P6: 10_0_15063 P7: 0_0 P8: 256_1 P9: P10: I've tested on my wife's PC that has the previous version of the nVidia driver and game runs OK (there is a hardware difference. She has EVGA GTX 650ti and only 8Gb RAM). Siege or Wildlands do not crash. Anyone else has this or similar issues?
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